For needs of designing facilities (residential, commercial, infrastructural, roads, utility lines…) it is necessary to draw up a cadastral-topographic plan as a map on which designing of a construction facility will be done.
The following terms are also used: plan, topographic plan, layout plan, cadastral-topographic plan, plan, ktp , designing map, digital plan, geodetic plan … drawn up by a geodetic agency – geodetic bureau- surveyor, and includes all relevant details of the surveyed area (existing facilities, roads, fences, shafts, poles, changes in descending gradient of the terrain etc.) for the needs of designing with shown altitude of each surveyed point and drawn border of cadastral parcel. It should be certified by a competent cadastre both in a hard copy and in a digital form (CD). A cadastral topographic plan drawn up in such a way is the only valid plan for designing and completing of design documentation in order to obtain a building permit.
If needed, we can make a layout plan which includes all surveyed details as well as a cadastral-topographic plan except borders of the parcel and is not certified by the cadastre. It is usually made for the analysis of location.
Marking the facility in the field, usually foundations, route etc., is made on the basis of documentation from the main design. A geodetic agency – geodetic bureau – surveyor usually in the field marks points of foundation basis or of a route and levels. A regulation and construction line can also be marked.
It is also called staking out of the facility, staking out of the foundation, staking out of foundation points, marking of axis of the facility, geodetic marking of the facility, marking of the facility, marking of points, etc.
It is advisable before marking of points to agree with the contractor about the way of marking and securing the placed points. Avoiding to stake out the facility or route can result in consequences which are hard and expensive to be removed, it can happen that a part or the whole is placed in other parcel or outside the construction line and designed layout.
Geodetic supervision and revision of geodetic designs
3D recording of the facility is becoming more frequently used in the modern designing, such as renovating of facilities, installation of facades (especially self-ventilating facades), conducting various installations through the facility, reconstruction and re-design of industrial facilities, control of position of facilities (landslides and similar). The following terms are also used: 3d recording of the facility, surveying of the façade, self-ventilating facades, 3d model of the facility, geodetic surveying, modelling of the building by 3d geodetic surveying.
Each construction facility which has been built has to be drawn/recorded in cadastral plans. It can also be called drawing of facilities in the cadastre, drawing of utility lines, surveying of utility lines recording of a change in cadastral plans of utility lines, drawing of utility lines in the cadastre, drawing of utility lines, surveying of the facility, surveying of the house, surveying of the garage, staking out of the garage, underground utility lines, water supply, sewerage, electrical cables, telecommunication, optical cables, surveying of underground facilities, drawing of underground facilities, recording of a change in cadastral plans of utility lines.
This relates to facilities (residential, auxiliary, commercial…) as well as to utility lines (electro, gas pipelines, heating pipeline, water supply, sewerage, telecommunication …).
This operation includes the geodetic agency – geodetic bureau – surveyor which performs geodetic measurements in the field, creates a detailed study with data on measurements of the facility, delivery to the responsible cadaster. When the detailed study is processed by the cadaster, the change is implemented in records (drawing of the facility in cadastral plans).
The facility becomes officially valid only after being drawn in cadastral plans.
For a subdivision elaboration a specification of special parts which precisely defines the number of special parts, their surface and purpose.
The following terms are also used: subdivision, specification of special parts, special parts of the facility and similar.
For the above stated works one must engage the geodetic agency – geodetic bureau – surveyor which goes on the field and performs necessary geodetic measurements.
Creation of a detailed protocol study on staking out of the facility, construction and regulation line
Regulation protocol is a document which in precisely depicts and shows a position of the regulation line, construction line, distance from neighbouring facilities or parcels’ borders, lines of the building parcel.
It is done by the geodetic agency – geodetic bureau – surveyor on the basis of the location permit, urban plan or some other plan documents. It is a component part of the main design, and on the basis of which the facility is accurately positioned and dimensioned in its foundation. It consists of a graphical and textual part.
Marking out a traffic artery and utility lines is staking out, marking of positions of the lines in the field, dimensions and altitude of designed axis and all accompanying elements of traffic arteries, utility lines and other lining facilities. It can be called marking of traffic arteries, streets, utility lines, rails, surveying of actual state of roads, traffic arteries, rails, marking out utility lines, roads, traffic arteries, rails…
The geodetic agency – geodetic bureau – surveyor carries out marking – staking out on the basis of the design documentation which is made on the cadastral-topographic plan. After marking in the field, performance of construction works can start in turn.
Creation of the detailed study on the gross building area for the technical acceptance and obtaining of the building permit
For each facility built with the building permit, after completion of works a technical acceptance of the facility must be done based on which a use permit will be issued. Each report on technical acceptance should include the following documents done by the geodetic agency – geodetic bureau – surveyor:
A detailed study on geodetic works for the built facility and special parts thereof
A detailed study on geodetic works for underground installations
Technical examination of the facility is done after completion of building of the facility, or a part thereof, if for its building , i.e. performance of works, a building permit was issued on the basis of which building of the facility was performed.
If the facility for which the building permit was issued as for the whole, is built in phases, a technical examination can be done for particular phases as well, i.e. for parts which present an independent technical-technological entity in relation to other phases.
Calculation of the volume in cubic meters is done with almost all construction works. This presents a difference between the initial state and the newly developed state after excavation, ie. filling of material.
It is also called quantity of material, volume in cubic meters, density of the material, coal, ore …
The geodetic agency – geodetic bureau – surveyor should before the works record the initial “zero” state and after completion the newly developed state. On the basis of the performed works a difference is calculated and the final result of the volume in cubic meters is given. A job performed in such a way prevents misuse of excavated and used quantities. It is especially applicable in mining excavation sites in order to know a quantity of excavated material.
Levelling of the terrain means defining descending gradients on the basis of transverse profiles and longitudinal profiles and markings in the field.
The geodetic agency – geodetic bureau – surveyor marks levelling of terrain which enables undisturbed drainage of rainwater, canal as well as sewerage in a desired direction. During construction of roads, sewerage, canals, plateaus, gardens, parks, play gardens, sports terrains…this activity should be approached with great care because if this is not done in an appropriate way, additional interventions are expensive and hardly feasible.
It is done when there is a need to divide a parcel to 2 or more parts, or if we want to merge together 2 or more parcels and become one parcel as one entity.
The following terms are also used: division of the plot, division of the parcel, division of property, division of real estate, division of the plot in two parts, division of the parcel in more parts, merging of parcels, merging the parcels together and similar.
In the zone of construction land for subdivision / reparcelling it is necessary to first obtain information about location and possibilities of reparcelling. Within it urban conditions for forming of the parcel and construction parcel and for constructing in that field are defined. On the basis of the above mentioned, it is necessary to draw up a reparcelling design that is to be done by an architect-urban planner. Conditions define in what way a parcel can be divided in smaller parts or merge several parcels into one entity.
A map for reparcelling design is to be done by the geodetic agency – geodetic bureau – surveyor who creates a cadastral-topographic plan as well as a design of geodetic marking. A design for reparcelling is to be approved by a responsible secretariat, after which marking in the field is to be carried out and, finally, a change in the cadastral records is implemented (cadastral plans). Newly created parcels obtains their own number of the cadastral parcel.
Demarcation od cadastral parcels
Recovering of borders of a cadastral parcel – DEMARCATION – is done when demarcation points of the parcel should be marked in the field, and reasons can be various. It is also called demarcation of the plot, land demarcation, demarcation of the parcel, marking of the plot borders, marking of the parcel borders and similar.
In the responsible cadastre it is necessary to submit a drawing with detailed points and coordinates of borders of the cadastral parcel from which the geodetic agency – geodetic bureau – surveyor takes coordinates of demarcation points. When obtained data are checked, we go in the field and perform marking of the demarcation points.
Surveying of utility lines and their drawing in the cadastre of utility lines such as electric lines, telecommunications, gas pipeline, heating pipeline, water supply, sewerage and similar is the obligation during their construction or relocation.
The following terms are also used: underground utility lines, water supply, sewerage, electric cables, optical cables, surveying of underground facilities, drawing in of underground facilities…
This is done by the geodetic agency – geodetic bureau – surveyor upon order received from the investor or contractor. The change made in the cadastre of utility lines prevents future potential damage due to cut of the utility line in case of performance of other works as well as potential costs incurred due to such damage. A frequent case is that a confirmation of a drawn utility line is demanded for the reason of a technical acceptance and the use permit. The geodetic agency – surveyor opens the case in the responsible cadastre, takes necessary data, performs field measurements, creates a detailed study, submits for further processing in the cadastre on utility lines.
Identification of parcels is done when a client knows his/her location in the field but does not know a number of the parcel or (more frequent case) when he/she has a number of the parcel but does not know where it is located in the field which is a frequent case with probate decision. This procedure is also known as finding a plot, finding a parcel, showing a plot, showing a parcel … Identification can be done by the geodetic agency – geodetic bureau – surveyor by means of showing it directly in the field, showing it on cadastral plans and by aliasing with aerial photograph or satellite recordings. On the basis of data related to a relevant parcel a Detailed study on identification of the parcel can be done which includes the area, location, access roads, water supply, power-distribution network, telecommunication network …as well as basic urban postulates. For the purpose of completing data about the parcel, it is necessary to procure the identification of the parcel of new and old surveying, number and area because it frequently happens that the area of a parcel is changed due to a changed method of showing and calculation, history of moving of the parcel.
Comparison of old and new surveying